Furthermore, the present construction associated with вЂњDown LowвЂќ happens to be still another depiction of bisexuality being a вЂњnewвЂќ concept, comparable to Newsweek’s вЂњdiscoveryвЂќ of вЂњBisexual Chic: Anyone GoesвЂќ (1974) over three decades ago. Even though presence of male and female bisexuality happens to be well-documented across countries since antiquity (Cantarella, 2002), the вЂњDown LowвЂќ was portrayed as a new trend. Nevertheless, the cyclical erasure, stigmatization, re-erasure, and restigmatization of bisexuality, specially among guys, is barely вЂњnewвЂќ (Angelides, 2001; Yoshino, 2000). In place of news depictions from current years, nonetheless, this time around bisexuality wasn’t exposed as a glamorous trend among pop music movie movie movie stars and supermodels. Rather, it absolutely was a shameful вЂњsecretвЂќ which put innocent individuals (women in specific) at an increased risk for infection and death. Certainly, the Down minimal ended up being abruptly exalted by some to your status for the force that isвЂњdriving regarding the HIV epidemic into the Ebony community. Oprah, in her own tv program, clearly connected the Down minimal occurrence to HIV transmission, as did the report within the nyc days Magazine. Any direct empirical evidence regarding the role of the Down Low phenomenon in the HIV epidemic among African Americans is lacking (Millett, Malebranche, Mason, & Spikes, 2005) although down Low men seem useful scapegoats for the disproportionally high prevalence rates of HIV among Black women.
Additionally, research on Black male bisexuality and its associations with HIV transmission have not yet acceptably described the complexity among these males’s intimate habits and linked risks, on their own and their lovers.
Last, current discourse surrounding the Down Low abruptly characterized вЂњsecretive bisexualityвЂќ to be all but exclusive to Ebony guys. Interestingly, classical studies of bisexuality in the usa focused heavily on White women and men. When recognized at all, very very early images for the possible part of a вЂњbisexual bridgeвЂќ from bisexual male to (presumably heterosexual and monogamous) feminine lovers also promulgated the label of this вЂњwhite picket fence,вЂќ i.e., the White, married man as being a vector of infection transmission (Miller, 2002). The current general public discourse on the Down minimal has had along with it an abrupt about-face with regards to racial/ethnic focus. It has resulted in renewed demonization not just of bisexuality but of Ebony male sexuality (cf. Lewis & Kertzner, 2003). Malebranche (2007) records, вЂњDemonizing Ebony male sexuality has been a staple of US tradition since slavery, where our part would be to work and breed, therefore the Mandingo label of the hyper-sexual Ebony guy with an appetite that is insatiable White women was createdвЂ¦we distort the facts about HIV when you look at the Black community to divert our attention through the genuine вЂdown lowвЂ™ problems of oppression, racism, insecurity, intimate abuse, drug abuse, joblessness, hopelessness, and despair.вЂќ
Interestingly, Latino males are also taken out of present discourse in the вЂњnew Down minimal occurrence,вЂќ although they’ve already been discovered to possess reasonably high prices of male bisexuality along side reasonably low prices of disclosure to partners that are female.
Research concentrating specifically on Latino bisexual guys, broadly comprehended right right here as guys of Latin descent that is american inhabit the usa, is significantly more developed than research on Ebony bisexual males. Even before the HIV epidemic, human body of research on bisexual behavior among Latino guys emerged from social boffins working within Latin America while the Caribbean. Ethnographic research indicates that Latin American bisexual males adult webcam face unique dilemmas when you look at the construction, expression, and connection with their sexualities (Aggleton, 1996). For instance, Carrier (1985) and Taylor (1978) unearthed that the machine of categorizing same-sex experiences among bisexually-active Mexican guys is dependent upon perhaps the people assume the вЂњmaleвЂќ or вЂњfemaleвЂќ role during sexual intercourse (penetrating or being penetrated). De Moya and Garcia (1996) discovered relationships that are similar masculinity and bisexuality when you look at the Dominican Republic. Within the Brazilian context, Parker (1991, 1996, 1999) recommended that the вЂњobjectвЂќ (man or woman) of your respective libido may be less significant into the subjective construction of your respective sex and therefore a reasonably high erotic value is positioned on a lot of freedom in intimate encounters.